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     Arizona Working Papers in
     Second Language Acquisition and Teaching


     Working Papers of the Interdisciplinary Ph.D. Program in
     Second Language Acquisition and Teaching (SLAT)
     and Collaborating Programs

     The University of Arizona®

     Harvill Room 241
     1103 East Second Street
     P.O. Box 210076
     Tucson, AZ  85721-0067




Managing Editors 

Senior Editor: Dr. Steve Daniel Przymus

Associate Editor:  Jennifer Rae Slinkard

Faculty Advisor: Dr. Hayriye Kayi-Aydar


Area Editors 

Analysis Editor: Dr. Michael Sayle

Pedagogy Editor: Elyse Barbara Petit

Processes Editor: Laurel Schenkoske

Use Editor: Trudie Clark McEvoy



Welcome to Volume 23 of the Arizona Working Papers in Second Language Acquisition & Teaching. We first would like to express our gratitude for the professional contributions of the Volume 23 Faculty Supervisor, Dr. Hayriye Kayi-Aydar, throughout the review process and in supporting and guiding the final product toward publication.

In keeping with a rich tradition of student collaboration as the bones of the AWP, we once again depended on the time, field-specific content knowledge, and judgment of the Second Language Acquisition & Teaching Ph.D. student and candidate area editors. We would therefore like to extend our appreciation to Dr. Michael Sayle (Analysis), Elyse Petit (Pedagogy), Laurel Schenkoske (Processes), and Trudie Clark McEvoy (Use). We finally would like to thank the authors, whose work is represented in this volume, for their timely response to revisions, persistence in collaboration with the AWP editorial staff in working towards the highest quality work possible, and for their valuable contributions to SLAT scholarship.

The contributions in this volume tell stories of learner, teacher, and researcher identity, and provide worthy insight into concrete, imaginary, and developing life trajectories toward desired personal and professional destinations, all through the analysis of the great impact of language and culture. Continuing the interdisciplinary tradition of the Arizona Working Papers in Second Language Acquisition & Teaching, this volume includes submissions from L2 Pedagogy and L2 Use, each with complementary overtones of L2 Processes and L2 Analysis, recognizing that language studies do not exist in isolated silos, but rather work in concert to bridge and strengthen our understanding of the human condition.

¬  Jenna Altherr Flores employs a critical multimodal social semiotic analysis to unearth and explain how the U.S. naturalization test and accompanying multimodal study cards work to create an implied institutionally-imagined community of immigrant test takers and how the multimodal messages found on these cards actually may have an effect of (dis)citizenship for resettled adult refugees striving to earn U.S. citizenship.

¬  Christine Palumbo introduces to the literature the concept of Imagined Destinations and works off of, extends, and offers contributing views of Vygotskian theory of cultural- historical psychology, by focusing her work on the imagination of non-native English speaking teachers and how this guides and transforms these individuals’ pathways to their desired Imagined Destinations as professionals in the field of English language teaching.

¬ Amanda Snell takes us to church and uses the markedness model to examine the Spanish/English codeswitching practices of members of a United Methodist Church in Tucson, Arizona, and in so doing highlights the bilingual creativity and expertise of the participants in this religious setting.

¬ Nicole Schmidt & Holly Wehmeyer appraise the effectiveness of self-assessment training and probe which factors influence self-assessment for ESL students at an intensive English program at a major university and find that self-assessment training can aid students in honest reflection, discussion, and ultimately increased autonomy in their language education.

¬ Mehtap Acar considers the reverberations of superdiversity and globalization on the lived experiences of global citizens and dispenses the reader with a needed report of the role of culture in second language acquisition, toward the development and import of intercultural communicative competence.

We are thrilled to bring you these articles and are pleased by how each – individually and together as a collection – keep the torch of engaging and scholarly AWP in SLAT contributions to the literature lit and fervently burning.

Steve Daniel Przymus
Senior Editor
Texas Christian University 
Jennifer Rae Slinkard
Associate Editor
University of Arizona



It is with great pleasure that I present the twenty-third issue of Arizona Working Papers in Second Language Acquisition and Teaching (SLAT), which covers a broad spectrum of topics: from the effects of multimodal messages found on US naturalization study test cards on adult refugees to the role of self-assessment in IEP programs. The contributions in this issue were solicited, selected, and edited by graduate students in the interdisciplinary SLAT Program at the University of Arizona. The SLAT doctoral program is designed to reflect the multi-disciplinary nature of second language acquisition and teaching, including theoretical and applied linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, anthropology, sociology, and education. The exciting research that you will find in this issue has been produced by SLAT doctoral students at the University of Arizona who are emerging as scholars in the fields of SLA and Applied Linguistics.

I had the distinct honor to work with the Managing Editors of this volume, Steve Daniel Przymus and Jennifer Rae Slinkard, whose dedication, collegial work, and strong editorial skills positively shaped the editing and revision process. I also enjoyed working with the specific area editors who represent the four areas in the SLAT Program: L2 Pedagogical Theory and Program Administration, Elyse Petit; L2 Processes and Learning, Laurel Schenkoske; Linguistic Analysis, Dr. Michael Sayle; and L2 Use, Trudie Clark McEvoy.

I believe that the manuscripts included in this issue challenge our knowledge of numerous topics and contribute to the on-going discussions and dialogues about them (e.g., intercultural communicative competence). Although the articles included in this issue have been carefully selected and critically edited, please note that they are to be regarded as work in progress. The authors who contribute to Arizona Working Papers typically plan to revise their papers and submit them for publication elsewhere. This volume is intended to serve as a medium for scholarly exchange, and hence you are welcome to offer your comments and suggestions directly to the authors.

A description of the UA SLAT program, including faculty biographies and additional information is available from the Program office and at the Program website (

Hayriye Kayi-Aydar
Assistant Professor
Department of English
English Applied Linguistics Affiliated Faculty Member: SLAT University of Arizona 





Steve Daniel Przymus & Jennifer Rae Slinkard
Hayriye Kayi-Aydar


Jenna Altherr Flores, University of Arizona

Jenna Altherr Flores is a doctoral student in the Second Language Acquisition and Teaching program at the University of Arizona. She has been working with adult resettled refugees since 2014. Jenna is co-founder and co-chair of the Arizona TESOL Teachers of Refugees Interest Section, Chair-Elect of the Refugee Concerns Interest Section for TESOL International, and a Peace Corps Coverdell Fellow. Her research interests lie in critical applied linguistics, multilingualism, literacy, language ideology, multimodality, and social semiotics. 



Christine Palumbo, Ph.D., Leman Manhattan Preparatory School

Christine Palumbo received her PhD from the University of Arizona SLAT program, specializing in Pedagogy and Teacher Education. Her research interests involve the interaction of society and culture, especially in educational settings. Dr. Palumbo is currently the Director of Multicultural Affairs at Leman Manhattan Preparatory School in Manhattan, New York. 



Amanda Snell, University of Arizona

Originally from Indiana, Amanda Snell is a first-year student in the Second Language Acquisition and Teaching Ph.D. program at the University of Arizona. Her research interest focuses on adult language learning at the community level, and she teaches English language and literacy classes to adult immigrants and refugees in Tucson. 



Nicole Schmidt, University of Arizona
Holly Wehmeyer, University at Albany (SUNY)

Nicole Schmidt is a second year PhD student in the Second Language Acquisition and Teaching program (SLAT) at the University of Arizona. She has been an ESL, EFL, and EAP teacher for the past eleven years, with professional experience in the United States, Spain, the Netherlands, and Japan. Nicole has co-authored an academic writing textbook, now in its second edition, and conducted international research on the standardization of CEFR-based writing assessment. Her more recent inquiries have focused on the intersection between affect, identity, and agency with regard to autonomous language teaching and learning. Nicole is also an active participant in the AZTESOL Refugee Interest Group.

Holly Wehmeyer is currently an ESL instructor at the University of Albany (SUNY), formerly at the University of Arizona. Her expertise lies within the areas of TOEFL preparation, teacher training, and language assessment. Holly is interested in seeking new ways to motivate her students to take responsibility for their own education. 


Mehtap Acar, University of Arizona

Mehtap Acar is a PhD candidate in Second Language Acquisition and Teaching at the University of Arizona. She is majoring in Pedagogical Theory and Program Administration, and minoring in Language, Reading and Culture. She is interested in curriculum development, peace education and the issues of culture/identity in multicultural educational settings. 


Last updated 30 Aug 2016