Volume 21

Volume 21, 2014

Managing Editors 
Senior Editor: Alan Thomas Kohler
Associate Editor:  Robert Poole
Faculty Advisor: Dr. David Gramling

Area Editors 
Analysis Editor: Denise Osborne
Pedagogy Editor: Merica McNeil
Processes Editor: Janel Murakami
Use Editor: Elizabeth Hubbs

Faculty Advisor Note

Over the past twelve months, I have had the great pleasure of collaborating with the editorial staff of the Arizona Working Papers toward the publication of this fine collection of research studies, which range in critical focus from the pragmatics of online code-switching, to phonological memory, to personal essay in the heritage language context, and beyond. These manuscripts were selected from among an exceptionally high number of manuscripts submitted this year. The international group of researchers featured in this issue worked with our editorial team throughout an intensive, multi-phased process of critical review and revision, and the fruits of this collaborative labor promise to enrich the general endeavor of Applied Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition for years to come. My particular thanks go to our Editors this year, Alan Kohler and Robert Poole, who have managed an extraordinary amount of intricate tasks, procedures, and collegial exchanges throughout the project, while maintaining a clear vision for the issue. To our readers: I hope your experience of discovery and reflection while engaging with these studies will nourish your own work, and that you will consider contributing to a future issue of AWP!

With warm greetings from Tucson,
David Gramling
Assistant Professor, Director of Graduate Studies
Department of German Studies

Table of Contents


Steve Daniel Przymus, University of Arizona

Steve Daniel Przymus is a PhD candidate in Second Language Acquisition and Teaching at the University of Arizona.  Steve has lived in the Dominican Republic as a Peace Corps volunteer and México as a Distinguished Fulbright Teacher.  His experiences have greatly influenced his research on language socialization and bilingual education.

Katherine O’Donnell Christoffersen, University of Arizona

Katherine O’Donnell Christoffersen is a PhD candidate in the Second Language Acquisition & Teaching Program at the University of Arizona.  She received her M.A. in English Language/Linguistics from the University of Arizona in 2010.  Her dissertation examines the development of code-switching competence by students in a Spanish immersion program.

Sunhee Kim, University of Maryland

Sunhee Kim is a PhD student in Second Language Acquisition at the University of Maryland. She received her MA in Second Language Studies at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. Her research interests include heritage language development, L2 vocabulary acquisition, and individual differences such as working memory capacity.

Lina M. Reznicek-Parrado, University of California, Davis

Lina M. Reznicek-Parrado is a second year PhD student in Spanish Linguistics at the University of California, Davis. Among various beginning and intermediate-level Spanish FL courses, she has taught Spanish as a Heritage Language at the high school level. Her interests include Spanish as a Heritage Language, Heritage Language Development, Digital Narratives in Heritage Language Pedagogy, among other topics in sociolinguistics. E-mail address: lreznice@ucdavis.edu

Kelvin Ka Yu Chong, University of Arizona 
Allen Ho, the Chinese University of Hong Kong
Olive Cheung, the Chinese University of Hong Kong
Ella Leung, the Chinese University of Hong Kong
Peter Clarke, exida Asia Pacific Pte Ltd

At the time of research, all authors of this article were affiliated with the English Language Teaching Unit (ELTU) at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Peter Clarke was the leader of the IOWA project at ELTU, and throughout his service there developed numerous software and valuable teaching resources.  Olive Cheung, Allen Ho, and Ella Leung remain at ELTU as lecturers teaching academic writing to university students across different disciplines.  Currently, Kelvin Chong is a PhD student in Second Language Acquisition and Teaching at the University of Arizona. George Jor, an experienced ESL teacher, had served many years at the Chinese University Hong Kong’s ELTU before recently retiring and moving on to the next chapter of his life.